1976 From Simplicity to Sensation: Art in
American Advertising., 1904-1929. Journal of Popular Culture
Adams, Carol J.
1991 The Sexual Politics of Meat. New
1979 Edsels, Luckies & Frigidaires:
Advertising the American Way. New York: Dell.
Baker, C. Edwin
1992 Advertising and a Democratic Process.
Pennsylvania Law Review 140(6):2097-143.
1987 Putting on Appearances: Gender and Advertising.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Belkaoui, Ahmed and Janice Lovi
1976 A Comparative Analysis of the Roles
Portrayed by Women in Advertising. Journal of Marketing Research
Belknap, Penny and Wilbert Leonard II
1991 A Conceptual Replication of Erving Goffmans Study
of Gender Advertisements. Sex Roles 25(3-4):103-18.
Benokraitis, Nijole and Joe Feagin.
Modern Sexism: Blatant,
Subtle, and Covert Discrimination. Second edition. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
1985 Ways of Seeing. London: BBC.
1995 The Good-Provider Role: Its Rise and Fall. In
Lives. Third edition. Michael Kimmel and Michael Messner,
eds. Pp. 149-163. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
1992 Are Ads Less Important? Advertising
Age, September 11, 1992, p. 25.
Borden, Neil H.
1942 The Economic Effects of Advertising.
Chicago: Richard D. Irwin.
1993 Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the
Body. Berkeley: University of California Press.
1997a Braveheart, Babe, and the Contemporary Body. In
Twilight Zones: The Hidden Life of Cultural Images from Plato
to O.J.. Pp. 27-65. Berkeley: University of California Press.
1997b Never Just Pictures. In Twilight Zones: The Hidden Life
of Cultural Images from Plato to O.J.. Pp. 107-138. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
1997c Can a Woman Harass a Man? In Twilight Zones: The Hidden
Life of Cultural Images from Plato to O.J.. Pp. 139-172.
Berkeley: University of California Press.
1995 Pornography and the Alienation of Male Sexuality. In
Mens Lives. Third edition. Michael Kimmel and Michael Messner, eds. Pp. 393-404. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Brumberg, Joan Jacobs
1997 The Body Project. New York: Random House.
Busby, Linda J. and Greg Leichty
1993 Feminism and Advertising in Traditional and
Nontraditional Women's Magazines 1950s-1980s.
Journalism Quarterly 70 (2):247-265.
1974 Family Structure and Feminine Personality. In
Culture and Society. Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo and Louise
Lamphere, eds. Pp. 43-66. Stanford: Stanford University
Collins, Patricia Hill
1990 Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and
the Politics of Empowerment. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
Cortese, Anthony J.
1999 Provocateur: Images of Women and
Minorities in Advertising. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.
Coughlin, Maureen and P. J. O'Connor
1984 Gender Role
Portrayals in Advertising: An Individual Difference Analysis.
Advances in Consumer Research, 12: 238-41.
Courtney, Alice and Sarah Wernick Lockeretz
1971 A Womans Place: An Analysis of the Roles Portrayed
by Women in Magazine Advertisements. Journal of Marketing
Courtney, Alice and Thomas Whipple
1983 Sex Stereotyping in Advertising. Lexington, MA:
1985 Female Role Portrayals in Advertising and Communication
Effectiveness: A Review. Journal of Advertising, 14 (3): 4-8,
1992 The Effect of Television Day Part on Gender Portrayals
in Television Commercials: A Content Analysis. Sex Roles
1994 Viewpoint: Power of Advertising More
Like a Myth. Advertising Age, January 10, 1994, p. 21.
1993 Beyond Racism and Misogyny. In Words that Wound.
Boulder: Westview. Pp. 111-132.
Culley, James D. and Rex Bennett
1976 Selling Women, Selling Blacks. Journal of Communication
1996 Love and Liquer: Modernism and
Postmodernism in Advertising and Fiction. In Advertising and Culture:
Theoretical Perspectives. Mary Cross (Ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger. Pp.
Danna, Sammy R.
1992 Changing Male Image in Advertising, In
Advertising and Popular Culture: Studies in Variety and Versatility,
Sammy R. Danna (Ed.), Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University
Press, Pp. 146-159.
Donnerstein, Edward and Daniel Linz
1997d Mass Media, Sexual Violence, and Male Viewers: Current
Theory and Research. In Reconstructing Gender: A
Multicultural Anthology. Estelle Disch, ed. Pp. 498-513.
Mountain View: Mayfield.
1982 Advertising as Communication.
Easton, G. and C. Toner
1983 "Women in industrial advertisements."
Industrial Marketing Management 12 (2, April):145-149.
Paula England and Teresa Gardner
1983. Sex Differentiation
in Magazine Advertisements: A Content Analysis Using
Log-Linear Modeling. Current Issues and Research in
Advertising, 6 (1): 253-268.
1993 Beauty and the Best. Colorado Springs, CO: Focus on the
1976 Captains of Consciousness:
Advertising and the Social Roots of Consumer Culture. New York: McGraw-Hill.
1988 All Consuming Images: The Politics of Style in
Contemporary Culture. New York: Basic Books.
1995 The Civic Advocacy of Violence. In Mens Lives.
Third edition. Michael Kimmel and Michael Messner, eds. Pp.
301-306. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
1999 Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man. New York:
Fennell, Geraldine and Susan Weber
1983 Avoiding Sex Role
Stereotypes in Advertising: What Questions should We Ask?
Advances in Consumer Research, 11: 88-93.
Ferguson, Jill Hicks, Peggy J. Kreshel and Spencer F. Tinkham
1990 "In the pages of Ms.: sex role portrayals of women
in advertising." Journal of Advertising 19 (1):40-51.
1984 "Invisible or lovely: women in
advertisements." Media Information Australia 34:23-34.
1996 Advertising and Popular Culture.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fox, Bonnie J.
1990 Selling the Mechanized Household: 70
Years of Ads in Ladies Home Journal. Gender and Society
1984 The Mirror Makers: A History of
American Advertising and Its Creators. New York: William Morrow.
1984 The Feminine Mystique. New York: Dell.
1995 Advertising and Mother Nature. In
Feminism, Multiculturalism, and the Media: Global Diversities. Angharad
Valdivia (Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
1998 Undressing the Ad: Reading Culture in Advertising. In
Undressing the Ad: Reading Culture in Advertising, Katherine
T. Frith, ed. Pp. 1-17. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
Furham, Adrian and Nadine Bitar
1993 The Stereotypical Portrayal of Men and Women in British
Television Advertisements. Sex Roles 29(3-4):297-310.
Gibson, James William
1994 Warrior Dreams: Violence and Manhood in Post-Vietnam
America. New York: Hill and Wang.
1979 Gender Advertisements. New York: Harper and Row.
1987 Advertising, Politics, and American
Culture. New York: Paragon House.
1992 Reading Ads Socially. London: Routledge.
Goodrum, Charles and Helen Darlrymple
1990 Advertising in America: The First 200
Years. New York: Abrams.
Gossage, Howard Luck
1967 The Gilded Bough: Magic and Advertising.
In The Human Dialogue: Perspectives on Communication. Floyd Matson
(Ed.). New York: Free Press, Pp. 362-70.
1996 Some Versions of the Pastoral: Myth in
Advertising, Advertising as Myth. In Advertising and Culture: Theoretical
Perspectives. Mary Cross (Ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger. Pp. 29-47.
1969 Advertising: The Central Institution of
Mass Society. Diogenes 68:120-37.
Griffin, M., K. Viswanath, and D. Schwartz
1994 "Gender advertising in the U. S. and India:
exporting cultural stereotypes." Media, Culture and
Society 16 (3):487-507.
Hall, Christine and Matthew Crum
1994 Women and Bodyisms in Television Beer
Commercials. Sex Roles 31(5-6):329-37.
1987 The Branding of America: From Levi
Strauss to Chrysler. Camden, Maine: Yankee Books.
The Second Shift
Hood, Jane C.
1995 Lets Get a Girl: Male Bonding Rituals
in America. In Mens Lives. Third edition. Michael
Kimmel and Michael Messner, eds. Pp. 303-311. Boston: Allyn
Hovland, Roxanne and Gary Wilcox (Eds.).
1989 Advertising in Society: Classic and
Contemporary Readings. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books.
Hubbard, Rita C
1992 Male Parent Images in Advertising, In
Advertising and Popular Culture: Studies in Variety and Versatility, Sammy
R. Danna (Ed.), Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Press, Pp.
1978 Advertising as Religion: The Dialectic
of Technology and Magic. In Cultural Politics in Contemporary America.
Ian Angus and Sut Jhally (Eds.). New York: Routledge. Pp. 217-29.
1987 The Codes of
Advertising: Fetishism and the Political Economy of Meaning in the Consumer
Society, London: Frances Pinter.
1995 The Construction of Masculinity and the Triad of
Mens Violence. In Mens Lives. Third edition.
Michael Kimmel and Michael Messner, eds. Pp. 13-25. Boston:
Allyn and Bacon.
1990 Advertising and Consumer Culture. In
Questioning the Media: A Critical Introduction. John Downing et. al. (Eds.)
Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
1990 "Advertising masculinity: the representation of
males in Esquire advertisements." Journal of Communication Inquiry 14 (1, Winter):51-70.
1999 Cant Buy My Love: How Advertising Changes the Way
We Think and Feel. New York: Simon and Schuster. If you have
to read only one text on gender and advertising, this is it.
Klassen, M., C. Jasper, and A. Schwartz
1993 "Men and women: images of their relationships in
magazine advertisements." Journal of Advertising Research 33 (2):30-39.
1983 An Exploratory Study of Sex
Roles in Advertising and Women's Perceptions of Managerial
Attributes in Women. Advances in Consumer Research, 11:
1990 Female Stereotyping in Advertising: An
Experiment on Male-Female Perceptions of Leadership. Journalism
Quarterly 67 (1):25-31.
1971 Women in Sexist Society. New York: John Wiley.
Lafky, Sue, Duffy, Margaret, Steinmaus, Mary and Berkowitz,
1996 "Looking through gendered lenses: female stereotype
in advertisements and gender role expectations."
Journalism Quarterly 73 (Summer 1996):379-387.
Lanis, Kyra and Katherine Covell
1995 Images of Women in Advertisements: Effects on Attitudes
Related to Sexual Aggression. Sex Roles 22(9-10):639-49.
1965 Advertising: Sacred and Profane.
Twentieth Century 165:118-29.
La Tour, Michael S.
1990 Female Nudity in Print Advertising: An
Analysis of Gender Differences in Arousal and Ad Response. Psychology and
1989 "Advertising: women's place and image -- a new
'generation' of images to women." Pp. 247-260 in P. J.
Creedon (ed.), Women in Mass Communication: Challenging
Gender Values. Sage Focus Edition, no. 106. Newbury Park, CA:
1989 A New Generation of Images of Women. In
Women in Mass
Communications. P.J. Creedon, ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Lears, T.J. Jackson
1984 Some Versions of Fantasy: Toward a
Cultural History of American Advertising., 1880-1930. In Prospects: The
Annual of American Cultural Studies. Jack Salzman (Ed.). New York: Cambridge
University Press. Pp. 349-405.
1983 From Salvation to Self-Realization:
Advertising and the Therapeutic Roots of the Consumer Culture, 1880-1930. In
The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History. Richard Fox
and T.J. Jackson Lears (Eds.). New York: Pantheon. Pp. 3-38.
Leigh, Thomas W. et. al.
1987 Role Portrayals of Women in Advertising:
Cognitive Responses and Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising
Leiss, William, Stephen Kline and Sut Jhally
1986 Social Communication in Advertising: Persons, Products
and Images of Well-Being. Toronto: Methuen.
Lewis, C. and J. Neville
1995 "Images of Rosie: a content analysis of women
workers in American magazine advertising, 1940-▪
Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 72 (1):216-227.
Lewis, Richard W.
1996 Abosolut Book: The Absolut Vodka
Advertising Story. Boston: Journey Editions.
1975 Hidden Myths: Structure and Symbolism
in Advertising. London: Heinemann.
1997 Advertising. In Gender Roles: A Sociological
Perspective. Third edition. Pp. 312-317. Upper Saddle River,
1977 The Art of Advertising: George Louis
on Mass Communication. New York: Abrams.
1985 "Role portrayals in British magazine
advertisements." European Journal of Marketing 19
1983 Female and Male Portrayals in Magazine
Advertisements: A Re-examination. Akron Business and Economic Review
1994 The Four Women of the Apocalypse:
Polarized Feminine Images in Magazine Advertisements. In Gender and Utopia in
Advertising: A Critical Reader. Luigi Manca and Alessandra Manca (Eds.), Lisle, IL: Procopian Press.
Macklin, M. Carole and Richard H. Kolbe
1984 Sex Role
Stereotyping in Children's Advertising: Current and Past
Trends. Journal of Advertising, 13 (2): 34-42.
Manca, Luigi and Alessandra Manca
1994 Adam through the Looking-Glass: Images
of Men in Magazine Advertisements of the 1980s. In Gender and Utopia in
Advertising: A Critical Reader. Luigi Manca and Alessandra Manca (Eds.), Lisle, IL: Procopian Press.
Manganaro, Elise Salem
1996 When Foreign Sells: Exotica in American
TV Ads of the Eighties. In Advertising and Culture: Theoretical Perspectives.
Mary Cross (Ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger. Pp. 11-27.
1985 Advertising the American Dream:
Making Way for Modernity, 1920-1940. Berkeley: The University of California
Masse, Michelle A. and Karen Rosenblum
1988 Male and Female Created They Them: The
Depiction of Gender in the Advertising of Traditional Men's and Women's
Magazines. Women's Studies International Forum 11(2):127-44.
Mayes, Ernest M.
1996 Images of Black Women in Print
Advertisements in Relation to Dominant Cultural Standards of Beauty. M.A.
thesis, Pennsylvania State University.
McAllister, Matthew P.
1996 The Commercialization of American
Culture: New Advertising, Control and Democracy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
1982 Demystifying Cosmopolitan: Five
Critical Methods. Journal of Popular Culture 16(2):30-42.
1992 Decoding Women's Magazines: From
Mademoiselle to Ms. New York: St. Martin's Press.
1947 American Advertising. Horizon
1995 Feminist Stylistics, Routledge.
1990 Are They Selling Her Lips?:
Advertising and Identity. New York: William Morrow.
Morrison, Bruce and Richard C. Sherman
1972 Who Responds to Sex in Advertising?
Journal of Advertising Research 12(2):15-19.
1975 Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Screen 16:6-18.
Norris, James D.
1990 Advertising and the Transformation of
American Society, 1865-1920. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
1994 Culture and the Ad: Exploring
Otherness in the World of Advertising. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
1963 Confessions of an Advertising Man.
New York: Atheneum.
1985 On Advertising.
New York: Vintage.
1974 Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture? In
Culture and Society. Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo and Louise
Lamphere, eds. Pp. 67-87. Stanford: Stanford University
1979 Magazine Advertising: Its Growth and
Effects. In The Commercial Connection: Advertising and the American Mass
Media. John Wright (Ed.). New York: Dell. Pp. 38-57.
1986 The Distorted Mirror: Reflections on the
Unintended Consequences of Advertising. Journal of Marketing 50(4):18-36.
1983 The Making of Modern Advertising.
New York: Basic Books.
1984 The Objectified Male: The New Male Image
in Advertising. Atkinson Review 1(Spring 1984):17-22.
1992 "Don't Hate Me Because I'm Beautiful":
Feminist Resistance to Advertising's Irresistible Meanings. The Southern
Journal of Communications 57(2):132-42.
Reid, Leonard N. and Lawrence C. Soley
Models and the Readership of Magazine Ads. Journal of
Advertising Research, 23 (April/May): 27-31.
Reid, L. N. and L. C. Soley
1981 "Another look at the 'decorative' female model: the
recognition of visual and verbal ad components." Pp.
123-133 in J. H. Leigh and C. R. Martin, Jr. (eds.), Current
Issues and Research in Advertising. Ann Arbor, MI: University
of Michigan, Graduate School of Business Administration.
Riffe, Daniel et. al.
1993 Game Time, Soap Time and Prime Time TV Ads: Treatment of
Women in Sunday Football and Rest-of-Week Advertising.
Journalism Quarterly 70(2):437-46.
1987 Modern Advertising-The Subtle
Persuasion. Christian Science Monitor January 28, 1987, P. 14ff.
Rudman, William and Akiko Hagiwara
1992 Sexual Exploitation in Advertising Health and Wellness
Products. Women and Health 18:77-89.
Rudman, William and Patty Verdi
1993 Exploitation: Comparing Sexual and Violent Imagery of
Females and Males in Advertising. Women and Health
Saunders, C. S. and B. A. Stead
1986 "Women's adoption of a business uniform: a content
analysis of magazine advertisements." Sex Roles 15
Scanlon, Jennifer, ed.
2000 The Gender and Consumer Culture Reader. New York: New
York University Press.
1990 The Semantic Derogation of Women. In The Feminist
Critique of Language: A Reader. Deborah Cameron, ed. Pp.
134-147. New York: Routledge.
1999 The Real Thing: Performance,
Hysteria, and Advertising. Hanover, NE: University Press of New England.
Sexton, Donald and Phyllis Haberman
1974 Women in Magazine Advertisements. Journal of Advertising
Sheperd, Juanita M.
1980 The Portrayal of Black Women in the Ads
of Popular Magazines. Western Journal of Black Studies 4:179-82.
1987 Advertising as a Cultural System. In
Marketing and Semiotics. J. Umiker-Sebok (Ed). New York: Mouton de
Gruyter, Pp. 441-61.
Shields, Vickie Rutledge
1990 Advertising Visual Images: Gendered Ways
of Seeing and Looking. Journal of Communication Inquiry 14(2):25-39.
2002 Measuring Up: How Advertising Affects
Self-Image. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
1990a Female Circulation: Medical Discourse and Popular
Advertising in the Mid-Victorian Era. In Body/Politics: Women
and the Discourses of Science. Mary Jacobus, Evelyn Fox
Keller, and Sally Shuttleworth, eds. Pp. 47-68. New York:
Simmons, Jane M.
1986 Gender Differences of Nonverbal Power Cues in Television
Commercials. Proceedings of the 1986 Convention of the
American Academy of Advertising, (ed.), Ernest F. Larkin:
1980 Advertising as Literature: The Utopian
Fiction of the American Marketplace. Texas Studies in Language and Literature
1987 Images Incorporated: Advertising as
Industry and Ideology. Kent, England: Croom Helm.
Soley, L. C. and L. N. Reid
1988 "Taking it off: Are models in magazine
advertisements wearing less?" Journalism Quarterly 65
Lawrence C. and Leonard N. Reid
1983 Effects of
Decorative Female Models on Ad Recognition Over Time.
Proceedings of the 1983 Convention of the American Academy of
Advertising, (ed.), Donald W. Jugenheimer: 116- 119.
1994 Sex, Lies, and Advertising. In
Moving Beyond Words, pp.
130-168. A Postmodern View of Advertising and Consumer
Responses. New York: Simon & Schuster.
1993 Feminist Literary Criticism and the Deconstruction of
Ads: A Postmodern View of Advertising and Consumer Responses.
Journal of Consumer Research 18:556-566.
Stern, Barbara and Morris B. Holbrook
1994 Gender and Genre in the Interpretation
of Advertising Text. In Gender Issues and Consumer Behavior. Janeen
Arnold Costa (Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, Pp. 11-41.
1994 What Makes Pornography Sexy? Minneapolis: Milkweed
1997b How Men Have (A) Sex. In Reconstructing Gender: A
Multicultural Anthology. Estelle Disch, ed. Pp. 218-227.
Mountain View: Mayfield.
1993 Nothing Tops the Woman's Touch.
Advertising Age October 4, 1993, p. S6.
Sullivan, G. L. and P. J. O'Connor
1988 "Women's portrayals in magazine advertising:
1958-1983." Sex Roles 18 (3/4):181-188.
Swartz, Teresa A.
1983 Role Portrayal Preferences for Print
Advertisements. Proceedings of the 1983 Convention of the
American Academy of Advertising, (ed.), Donald W. Jugenheimer, Pp. 112-115.
1994 Advertising Language: A Pragmatic
Approach to Advertisements in Britain and Japan. London: Routledge.
1987 Male Fantasies. Volumes I, II. Minneapolis: University
of Minnesota Press.
Thompson, Doug Cooper
1993 The Male Role Stereotype. In Experiencing Race, Class,
and Gender in the United States. Virginia Cyrus, ed. Pp.
146-148. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
1997a Boys and Girls Together But Mostly Apart: Gender
Arrangements in Elementary School. In Reconstructing Gender:
A Multicultural Anthology. Estelle Disch, ed. Pp. 77-94.
Mountain View: Mayfield.
1997c Like a Smack in the Face: Pornography in the Trades. In
Reconstructing Gender: A Multicultural Anthology. Estelle Disch, ed. Pp. 379-381. Mountain View: Mayfield.
1953 The Shocking History of Advertising.
New York: E.P. Dutton.
Twitchell, James B.
1996 AdCult USA: The Triumph of Advertising in American
Culture. New York: Columbia University Press.
Ads that Shook the World: The Century's Most Groundbreaking Advertising and How
It Changed Us All. New York: Three Rivers Press.
1981 The Seven Ages of Women: A View from American
Magazine Advertisements. Chapter 11 in Clara Mayo and
Nancy M. Henley (eds.), Gender and Nonverbal Behavior. New
Venkatesan, M. and Jean Losco
1975 Women in Magazine Ads: 1959-71. Journal of Advertising
Wagner, Louis and Janis Banos
1973 A Womans Place: A Follow-Up Analysis of the Roles
Portrayed by Women in Magazine Advertisements. Journal of
Marketing Research May:213-14.
Walters, Suzanna Danuta
1995 Material Girls: Making Sense of Feminist Cultural
Theory. Berkeley: University of California Press.
1993 Visual Grammars of Gender: The Gaze and
Psychoanalytic Theory in Advertisements. Journal of Communication Inquiry 17 (1):25-40.
Waters, Judith and George Ellis
1996 The Selling of Gender Identity. In
Advertising and Culture: Theoretical Perspectives. Mary Cross (Ed.).
Westport, CT: Praeger. Pp. 91-103.
1949 The 100 Greatest Advertisements: Who
Wrote Them and What They Did. New York: Moore.
1991 Promotional Culture: Advertising,
Ideology and Symbolic Expression. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
1992 The Existence and Effectiveness of
Sexual Content in Advertising, In Advertising and Popular Culture:
Studies in Variety and Versatility, Sammy R. Danna (Ed.), Bowling Green,
OH: Bowling Green State University Press, Pp. 134-140.
1988 Advertising Fictions: Literature,
Advertisement, and Social Reading. New York: Columbia University Press.
1991 A Comparison of Role Portrayal of Men and Women in
Magazine Advertising in the USA and Sweden. International
Journal of Advertising 10:259-67.
1978 Decoding Advertisements: Ideology and
Meaning in Advertising. London: Marion Boyers.
Advertising: The Magic System. In Culture and Materialism. London: Verso.
1991 The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty are Used Against
Women. New York: Doubleday.
Wright, John W. (Ed.)
1979 The Commercial Connection:
Advertising and the American Mass Media. New York: Dell.